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Make your own crystal oscillator

Make your own crystal oscillator

Sometimes there might be a requirement for a non-standard crystal oscillator. While most crystal manufacturers will grind a custom crystal for you, it would obviously be much cheaper and quicker for you to make your own. Bear in mind this project is suitable only for those people who are well acquainted with electronics and soldering.
You will need a frequency counter, or at least an oscilloscope. In this document the word “crystal” refers to a simple quartz crystal, usually packaged in a metal can with two leads. The word “oscillator” or “crystal oscillator” refers to an electronic device which is crystal controlled and generates a clock signal suitable for digital circuits. It is also packaged in a metal or plastic case with 4 leads.

This is a design, using very cheap, common parts which will allow you to build a drop-in equivalent for the popular metal can 14-pin DIL layout crystal oscillator modules. One problem, however, is that most crystals available to the home hobbyist are of frequencies less than around 36 MHz. There is a way to obtain higher frequencies by causing the crystal to oscillate in a different “mode”. For example, a crystal labelled as 14.31818 MHz can be induced to oscillate at 42.9 MHz in third overtone mode. Likewise in 2nd overtone mode, you will get 28.636 MHz. A 25MHz crystal will give you either 25MHz, 50MHz or 75MHz. The one crystal gives you a choice of at least 3 frequencies.

To select which frequency you want is simple. You first need to work out what crystal you need. Divide your desired frequency by either 1, 2 or 3, aim for a resulting frequency that is available. For example, you need a 64MHz oscillator. Dividing by 2 gives 32MHz, which is a crystal you can buy from most electronics retailers. To make your crystal oscillate at the higher frequency, you will need to vary the value of C1 shown on the schematic. A smaller value capacitor will force the crystal to oscillate at it’s higer frequency. Generally, the capacitor would be somewhere in the range of 1pF to 15 pF. The actual value required would be best found by experiment as there are quite a few variables involved such as wire lead lengths (try to keep them short), the IC used and most importantly, the capacitance inherent in the crystal used.

As an example, to generate a 55.6 MHz clock used in overclocking the A2386 Bridgeboard, I used an 18.5 MHz crystal operating on it’s 3rd overtone. The value of C1 required was 3pF. Be aware, that if you make a similar oscillator, you may need a slightly different value for C1. Another example is a requirement for 32 Mhz. In this case I had an actual 32 Mhz crystal, so to make the crystal oscillate on it’s fundamental mode, I used a value of 10 pF for C1.

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