Organize and Share your Electronics the way you want. Sign-Up for a free account now. It takes only 30 seconds!

PAM-4 Design Challenges and the Implications on Test

PAM-4 Design Challenges and the Implications on Test

As Ethernet technology progresses from 100G to 400G, new test technology, measurement capabilities, and ability to accurately simulate PAM-4 designs for TX and RX hardware are mandatory. The change from NRZ to PAM-4 multilevel signaling presents many new design and measurement challenges.

During design simulation, NRZ historical information from prior generations can be applied to the design. As the industry moves to PAM4, early simulation of the design with EDA tools will become more critical. Common algorithms between simulation and hardware results reduce a fundamental measurement uncertainty, increasing the systematic value of simulation data. PAM-4 transmitter output testing will continue to use sampling and real-time oscilloscopes with built-in measurements that will evolve with the PAM-4 technical needs. PAM-4 input testing can be accomplished with the traditional BERT approach for pattern generation. However, development of new stress types will be required to emulate impairments and new enabling technologies will evolve. Modern high-speed AWGs can provide stressed patterns for PAM 4, and for complex modulation schemes in the future. Keysight engineers are working at the forefront of Ethernet technology and migration to 400G to help you navigate as the technology evolves. Keysight continues to provide powerful solutions for emerging technologies such as PAM-4.

Read more Here

 

More Articles to Read

USB2005 and USB97C202 Sharing ATA/ATAPI Drive w/ Another Controller
USB2005 and USB97C202 Sharing ATA/ATAPI Drive w/ Another Controller
Robotic Cat Laser
Robotic Cat Laser
LED traffic light
LED traffic light
Estimating Power for ADSP-BF561 Blackfin® Processors
Estimating Power for ADSP-BF561 Blackfin® Processors
Teach Your Arduino to Switch Itself Off!
Teach Your Arduino to Switch Itself Off!
Control a tracked robot with your mind (or joystick)
Control a tracked robot with your mind (or joystick)
A 400W (1kW Peak) 100A electronic load using linear MOSFETs
A 400W (1kW Peak) 100A electronic load using linear MOSFETs
Shirt Pocket Transceiver with the Si5351 and OLED
Shirt Pocket Transceiver with the Si5351 and OLED
All metal C930e webcam
All metal C930e webcam
The Soldering Tools That Make Your Life Easier
The Soldering Tools That Make Your Life Easier

Top




Shares