Here is a circuit of an off-line telephone tester which does not require any telephone line for testing a telephone instrument. The circuit is so simple that it can be easily assembled even by a novice having very little knowledge of electronics.
A telephone line may be considered to be a source of some 50 volts DC with a source impedance of about 1 kilo-ohm. During ringing, in place of DC, an AC voltage of 70 to 80 volts (at 17 to 25 Hz) is present across the telephone line. When the subscriber lifts the handset, the same is sensed by the telephone exchange and the ringing AC voltage is disconnected and DC is reconnected to the line. Lifting of the handset from the telephone cradle results in shunting of the line’s two wires by low impedance of the telephone instrument. As a result, 50V DC level drops to about 12 volts across the telephone instrument. During conversation, the audio gets superimposed on this DC voltage. Since any DC supply can be used for testing a telephone instrument, the same is derived here from AC mains using step-down transformer X1. Middle point of the transformer’s secondary has been used as common for the two full-wave rectifiers—one comprising diodes D1 and D2 together with smoothing capacitor C1 and the other formed by diodes D3 and D4 along with filter capacitor C2. The former supplies about 12 volts for the telephone instrument through primary of transformer X2 which thus simulates a source impedance, and a choke which blocks AC audio signals present in the secondary of transformer X2. The AF signal available in secondary of X2 is sufficiently strong to directly drive a 32-ohm headset which is connected to the circuit through headphone socket SK1 via rotary switch S2. During ringing, a pulsating DC voltage from transformer X1 via rectifier diode D5, push-to-on switch S3, and contact ‘B’ of rotary switch S2 is applied across secondary of transformer X2. The boosted voltage available across primary of transformer X2 is sufficient to drive the ringer in the telephone instrument. Please avoid pressing of switch S3 for more than a few seconds at a time to prevent damage to the circuit due to high voltage across primary of transformer X2. The circuit also incorporates a music IC (UM66) whose output is connected to secondary of transformer X2 via switch S2 after suitably boosting its output with the help of darlington transistor pair T1 and T2. This output can be used to test the audio section of any telephone instrument. After having assembled the circuit satisfactorily, the following procedure may be followed for testing a telephone instrument:
1. Connect the telephone to the terminals marked ‘To Telephone Under Test’and switch on mains (switch S1).
2. To test the ringer portion, flip switch S2 to position ‘B’ and press S3 for a moment. You should hear the ring in case the ringer circuit of the telephone under test is working. Please ensure that handset is on cradle during this test.
3. For testing the audio section, flip switch S1 to position ‘C’ and connect a headphone to socket SK1. Pick the telephone handset and speak into its microphone. If audio section is working satisfactorily, you should be able to hear your speach via the headphone. If you dial a number, you should be able to hear the pulse clicks or pulse tone in the headphone, depending on whether the telephone under test is functioning in pulse or tone mode. If the telephone under test has a built-in musical hold facility, on pressing the ‘hold’ button you should be able to hear the music. Now flip switch S2 to position ‘A’. You should be able to hear music generated by IC1 through earpiece of the handset of the telephone under test, indicating propor functioning of the AF amplifier section. The circuit can be assembled on a small piece of veroboard. Try to mount the two transformers on opposite sides of the board, displaced by 90 degrees. Always keep handy multi-type modular plugs for testing various types of telephones. Mount all switches, sockets and LEDs on the front of testing panel.
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