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Reverse Engineering a Server CPU Voltage Regulator Module

Reverse Engineering a Server CPU Voltage Regulator Module

I have an accurate Keysight U3402A bench multimeter so I decided to take a number of readings at steadily increasing intervals of 100mA from zero to 5A to see how stable the output was and also to calculate the efficiency percentages.

I-load I-in P-in Vout Pout Ploss Efficiency
0 0.11 1.32 3.3321 0 1.32 0
0.1 0.13 1.56 3.3313 0.33313 1.22687 21.35448718
0.2 0.16 1.92 3.3307 0.66614 1.25386 34.69479167
0.3 0.19 2.28 3.3298 0.99894 1.28106 43.81315789
0.4 0.22 2.64 3.3298 1.33192 1.30808 50.45151515
0.5 0.24 2.88 3.3282 1.6641 1.2159 57.78125
0.6 0.27 3.24 3.3276 1.99656 1.24344 61.62222222
0.7 0.3 3.6 3.3269 2.32883 1.27117 64.68972222
0.8 0.33 3.96 3.3258 2.66064 1.29936 67.18787879
0.9 0.36 4.32 3.3249 2.99241 1.32759 69.26875
1 0.38 4.56 3.3247 3.3247 1.2353 72.91008772
1.1 0.41 4.92 3.3235 3.65585 1.26415 74.30589431
1.2 0.44 5.28 3.3263 3.99156 1.28844 75.59772727
1.3 0.47 5.64 3.3253 4.32289 1.31711 76.64698582
1.4 0.5 6 3.3244 4.65416 1.34584 77.56933333
1.5 0.53 6.36 3.3236 4.9854 1.3746 78.38679245
1.6 0.55 6.6 3.3233 5.31728 1.28272 80.56484848
1.7 0.58 6.96 3.3234 5.64978 1.31022 81.175
1.8 0.61 7.32 3.323 5.9814 1.3386 81.71311475
1.9 0.64 7.68 3.323 6.3137 1.3663 82.20963542
2 0.67 8.04 3.322 6.644 1.396 82.63681592
2.1 0.7 8.4 3.3174 6.96654 1.43346 82.935
2.2 0.73 8.76 3.3174 7.29828 1.46172 83.31369863
2.3 0.76 9.12 3.3165 7.62795 1.49205 83.63980263
2.4 0.79 9.48 3.3146 7.95504 1.52496 83.91392405
2.5 0.82 9.84 3.3132 8.283 1.557 84.17682927
2.6 0.85 10.2 3.3122 8.61172 1.58828 84.42862745
2.7 0.89 10.68 3.3108 8.93916 1.74084 83.7
2.8 0.93 11.16 3.3103 9.26884 1.89116 83.05412186
2.9 0.96 11.52 3.309 9.5961 1.9239 83.29947917
3 0.99 11.88 3.3077 9.9231 1.9569 83.52777778
3.1 1.03 12.36 3.3066 10.25046 2.10954 82.93252427
3.2 1.06 12.72 3.306 10.5792 2.1408 83.16981132
3.3 1.09 13.08 3.3053 10.90749 2.17251 83.39059633
3.4 1.12 13.44 3.3048 11.23632 2.20368 83.60357143
3.5 1.15 13.8 3.3041 11.56435 2.23565 83.79963768
3.6 1.18 14.16 3.3038 11.89368 2.26632 83.99491525
3.7 1.21 14.52 3.3031 12.22147 2.29853 84.16990358
3.8 1.24 14.88 3.3021 12.54798 2.33202 84.32782258
3.9 1.28 15.36 3.3005 12.87195 2.48805 83.80175781
4 1.31 15.72 3.2987 13.1948 2.5252 83.93638677
4.1 1.34 16.08 3.2945 13.50745 2.57255 84.00155473
4.2 1.37 16.44 3.2938 13.83396 2.60604 84.14817518
4.3 1.4 16.8 3.293 14.1599 2.6401 84.28511905
4.4 1.43 17.16 3.2925 14.487 2.673 84.42307692
4.5 1.46 17.52 3.2918 14.8131 2.7069 84.54965753
4.6 1.5 18 3.2911 15.13906 2.86094 84.10588889
4.7 1.53 18.36 3.2902 15.46394 2.89606 84.22625272
4.8 1.56 18.72 3.29 15.792 2.928 84.35897436
4.9 1.59 19.08 3.2888 16.11512 2.96488 84.46079665
5 1.62 19.44 3.288 16.44 3 84.56790123



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While collecting the data I noticed how the output voltage behaved at each level. The output voltage typically fluctuated by 500µV or so except around 1.8 to 2A where the fluctuations were more like 1 or 2mV. As the output voltage approached 3.3000V it appeared to become much more stable, often sitting without any fluctuation at all on my meter.

The data in the table can be visualised in these charts.

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